Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Managing Information

Question: Discuss about the Process of Managing information within Organizations and ianalyse the role of MIS, by describing its diversified applications that could be used by Managers to fulfill different needs and to be utilized in planning the Organizational strategy. Answer: Introduction Organizations need timely and accurate information to use them on a regular basis in accomplishing their operations. Information flows should be managed properly to ensure flexibility of certain information processing activities as exchange, retrieval, documentation and quality of the information used in decision making within organizations. Researchers focus on managing the flow of information for strategic, tactical and operational purposes which support different managerial levels to take decisions based on accurate and timely data. Management treats information as strategic resource that is used in building organizational capabilities and creating competitive advantage according to the resource based view. Information integration includes inform sharing by exchanging information among individuals, groups and departments. Information sharing creates a two way communication between the upstream and the downstream, as the supplier and retailer exchange information concerning the dem and preferences and sales. The shared information creates transparency and improves the supply chain responsiveness to market changes (Durugbo, 2014). This report focuses on the process of managing information within organizations and it analyses the role of MIS, by describing its diversified applications that could be used by managers to fulfill different needs and to be utilized in planning the organizational strategy. This report consists of three parts, the first part sheds the light on the process of information management with relation to communication technology. The second part describes in details the MIS concerning its strategy, its benefits to the organization, MIS elements, the organizational memory as a part of MIS and it declares the MIS limitations. The third part focuses on the MIS applications with special focus on effective MIS and information systems outsourcing. First: Information management The world is transforming from the information and communications technology age to the age of the knowledge economy. Knowledge could be used to solve problems through the decision making process and strategies of decision making. Integrated information system assists in supporting managers with the information necessary to solve problems (Nonthakarn Wuwongse, 2015). In order to support organizational purposes, information should be gathered and processed. Organizational purposes could be developing new products, introducing new services to customers and creating competitive advantage. Information is also collected to fulfill the needs of a certain level of organization and a specific organizational department. The same information could also be used to serve different organizational purposes. The management may make major changes in the staff, structure and systems (Best, 2010). According to Best (2010), information management concerns with the following issues: The extent to which the decision cycles are changed due to the use of information The decision cycle length The estimated lifetime of the information stored in the system The policies to be achieved, discard and retained due to the use of the information system. Management of information flows and store The information managers are supposed to do certain tasks according to Best (2010), as follows: Monitor the flow and use of information and documents through systems, by establishing appropriate mechanisms. Decide the need for information system development according to advancements in technology. Decide the needs of information applications according to the emergence of new business areas and the traffic volume of information to estimate the level of change of technology necessary to fulfill the need for information. Developing automated methods related to the defined areas is still incomplete, and needs too much effort from RD and high qualified employees within organizations. The current organizational design is getting old and needs to change and introduce new methods to meet the challenges of information management, especially in large organizations. Second: Managing information systems (MIS) Managers who are interested in developing information systems to create competitive advantage need analysis to identify the required types of information systems that would create the strategic advantage to their organizations. A management information system (MIS) refers to set of systems that collect and integrate information from various sources to be represented in a readable format. MIS is used by managers to get the necessary information needed to take a decision in the form of reports retrieved from the system. Reports' level of details differs according to the managerial level that needs the information, they range from daily reports to top level management reports. Technology enables the creation of effective information systems that support the decision makers, the main goal of MIS is to enable managers to take the right decision efficiently. By gathering information from different sources in a unified database and producing logical formatted reports. MIS supports managers with all necessary information to enable them from taking informed decisions and performing in-depth analysis of different business issues. MIS can gather any type of required information, as employees' data and financial data, then information is directed to the group or department that needs it. MIS could be used in all organization's types including business, government, public sector and non-profit organizations. MIS integrates information from different systems within the organization as the financial system, logistics systems, inventory systems and any other types of systems(Zare Reza, 2013). MIS strategy Information is used by management as data collection to be used in the decision making process, in which information is used as an input and also an output. Meaningful data are stored, amended, processed and submitted as reports that show the activities. Information is a strategic resource to the organization that requires knowledge management (Ucakturk Villard, 2013). The concept of information system strategy is not clearly defined, as the initial research concerning the strategy of information systems emerged in the mid-1970s. At this time information systems were not considered as a source of competitive advantage. Business strategy and IT strategy are recently combined to produce the concept of digital business strategy. MIS could be used to shape the business models. MIS models integrate customer experience, supply chains, products and services and business operations in one system. Leading organizations tend to create platforms of digital business and increase the digitization level of business in the coming years. The MIS strategy is mainly implemented to information systems that clearly define the organizational need for information necessary to develop the business strategy (Peppard, Galliers, Thorogood, 2014). Technology is witnessing rapid advancements, the emergence of cloud computing services help organizations to achieve strategic capability necessary to scale up its structure. Cloud computing provides self-service, rapid, virtualized resources, access networks and quality service (Bharadwaj, El Sawy, Pavlou, Venkatraman, 2013) Researchers argue that that investment projects in IS/IT face the challenges of uncertainty. The option theory application in IT investment projects is used in evaluating the growth options of the software and facilitating organizational agility (Chuan, Wu, Wen, 2010). MIS plays a vital role in the time of crisis, updating MIS on timely manner ensures that the right decision is taken. MIS could help organization in avoiding bad consequences as a result of major environmental change or a crisis. Taking essential actions helps the organization to survive. System operators can add functions to the MIS by creating relations with data mining technologies and cross referencing of information in systems outside the organization. MIS can be used in comparing the practical decisions with strategic objectives, by this, it provides managers with the best fit of their decision to the organizational strategy (Amit Meel, 2012) Benefits of MIS The quality of information decides the quality of the decision built upon the provided information. Management has to clearly identify the current system before planning to use a certain MIS strategy. This process will ensure the implementation of the right MIS strategy, save cost and time, as there should be a link between the decision considered to be taken and the MIS to be used within the organization. MIS needs to be regularly updated to help managers take the decision based on timely information which assists in improving the organizational operations. Also, programming the system to be checked regularly guarantee that the system is efficiently functioning and free of errors. MIS acts as record keeping of confidential databases as well as invaluable information so that managers can use the backlog of information to make necessary decisions in the present (Nowduri, 2011). MIS elements The MIS consists of three elements according to Point (2014): Information storage device: stores information from the past to be used in present organizational activities. The storage device contains statistics, diagrams, symbols and words related to diverse subjects as politics, economics and administration. Information retrieval and manipulation: are used to meet the changing environment implications through decision making, information acquisition and innovation. Decision-making aid: IS assists in decision making through the strategic planning process, managerial control of resources to ensure the efficient and effective resource allocation and the operational control of certain tasks. Organizational memory information system (OMIS Accomplishment of objectives and alignment with organizational goals, needs management support. MIS success required sustainable management commitment in the implementation phase either middle or top management (Frimpon, 2012) Organizational memory information system (OMIS) is an application system that stores historical activities and information, so that knowledge from the previous work could be transferred to the present. This function increases the level of effectiveness of the organization. The memory of the OMIS is designed to support the management objectives of doing business in any world country depending on the stored information on the projects the organization operates (Hamidi Jusoff, 2009). MIS limitations MIS operations in multitasks assist in increasing the efficiency, as several operations are being implemented at the same time. Multiple users are allowed to access MIS at the same time without any problems and with equal opportunity for all of them. These features increase the accountability and reliability of the MIS. MIS may fail to support decision making, in this case monitoring the system is desirable to make sure that system work properly and the decisions taken upon the retrieved reports are correct. Managers may tend to balance between human elements and MIS to ensure taking the right decision (Harsha Manisha, 2015). MIS could be expanded to contain various global data sources through the integration with global entities and to reflect different cultures by developing the role of MIS within the global countries. Developing global MIS requires communication and timely coordination initiatives through a global strategy. Research on global MIS is still limited and needs to be developed (Karanja Zaveri, 2013). Third: Managing information systems (MIS) applications Strategic information systems consist of four types of systems. The first type, is used in sharing information with customers and suppliers via an electronic system, the second type, is used to integrate information more effectively in the value adding process of the organization, the third type, enables the organization in producing and developing new products or customized product and services according to the consumers' needs, forth type, supports managers with information needed for the development and the implementation of the strategy (Sevrani, 2011). Decision support system (DSS) MIS has a variety of applications that fulfill certain business needs. The DSS is an application that analyses the business data and represents it to the decision maker to help him in taking the appropriate decision effectively and efficiently. The management at top level uses the DSS to take important decisions, the management at the middle level uses DSS to take tactical decision and the management at the first line uses DSS in making operational decisions (Nowduri, 2011) DSS concept is extended to enable many decision making groups to cooperate in using the DSS tools, this function is processed by using distributed decision making (DDM) tools. Then the group decision support systems (GDSS) were developed to facilitate information sharing among groups of people, which may take place at a meeting held for decision making. DDM is used in GDSSs incorporation and it allows communication between DSSs (Sasvari, 2012) Information systems (IS) Organizations need effective systems in order to execute strategies, the advancement in technology enabled the development of information systems. Management tends to align strategic information systems with business goals, the misalignment results in problems in the phase of planning. The most effective IS is the system that is well embedded in the structure of the organization. IS is highly effective in monitoring and control processes. IS assists also in creating complementary knowledge systems. As process complexity increase, the challenge of executing strategic IS increase. Analytics and IS improves the relation between managerial decision making and the operational activities (Kumar Sushil, 2015). Organizations invest heavily in IS to create capabilities and achieve competitive advantages. There are factors that assist in developing IS process, including the expectations of the end user, communications among users and alternatives of development methods. Implementing IS within organizations is considered an organizational change process which needs to be managed. Changes might be disruptive and may lead to changes in the organizational goals. Implementing IS declares the process by which it will be used and accepted by employees. Employees may resist change for the fear of losing their positions as a result of automating work processes or they may feel afraid of using complex systems (Sooklal, Papadopoulos, Ojiako, 2011). Information systems (IS) outsourcing The organization may outsource the IS to apply a full outsourced system or to use outsources certain functions. Outsourcing may be a solution to delegate the implementation problem and responsibility to vendors. Also, it may reduce the cost of developing IS and leaves a space to management to concentrate their efforts on the main tasks of business. The organization may lack the knowledge capabilities and it needs to acquire knowledge from the vendor and benefit from the complementary skills and rare expertise. Attracting new knowledge could help the organization develop its innovative capabilities (Al?Salti Hackney, 2011) Conclusion This report focused on information management in organizations in the communications technology age to the age of the knowledge economy. As knowledge is a useful tool to help managers in problem solving through the decision making process. Also, there are some issues, information managers should consider to ensure the effectiveness of the information management process. MIS is the focus of this research, its description and benefits in assisting decision makers are analyzed. MIS is used by managers to get the necessary information needed to take a decision in the form of reports retrieved from the system. The level of details provided to managers differs according to their managerial level. Technology enabled the development of effective information systems that support the decision makers. MIS integrates information from various sources through its various applications as DSS and expert systems that fulfill. MIS strategy should be aligned to the organizational business strategy. MIS elements are also discussed to describe the system mechanism. The OMIS application system importance is also discussed as it stores historical activities and information. Outsourcing could benefit the organization to enhance its skills and could be complementary to the organizational MIS. MIS has limitations as its implementation within the organization may cause major organizational changes. The technological systems require human activities as monitoring and follow up to ensure the accuracy of information to ensure the accuracy of information delivered to decision makers. References Al?Salti, Z., Hackney, R. (2011). Factors impacting knowledge transfer success in information systems outsourcing. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 24(5), 455-468. Amit, M., Meel, P. (2012). Application of Management Information Systems for Business Decision Making: Review, Study and Suggestions. International Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 3(4), 18-21. Best, D. (2010). The future of information management. Records Management Journal, 20(1), 61-71. Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O., Pavlou, P., Venkatraman, N. (2013). Digital business strategy: Toward a next business generation of insights. MIS quarterly, 37(2), pp. 471-482. Chuan, L., Wu, L., Wen, Y. (2010). Interdisciplinary research of options theory and management information systems: Review, research issues, and suggestions for future research. Industrial Management Data Systems, 110(3), 433-452. Durugbo, C. (2014). Managing information for collaborative networks. Industrial Management Data Systems, 114(8), 1207-1228. Frimpon, M. (2012). A project approach to enterprise resource planning implementation. International journal of business and management, 7(10). Hamidi, S., Jusoff, K. (2009). The characteristic and success factors of an organizational memory information system. Computer and information science, 2(1), pp. 1034-1040. Harsha, A., Manisha, A. (2015). Decision making in an organization for formal concept analysis of management information system and business analysis. International Journal Magazine of Engineering, Technology, Management and Research, 2(1), 229-303. Karanja, E., Zaveri, J. (2013). A comprehensive review of survey?based research in MIS. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 15(2), 159-188. Kumar, A., Sushil, A. (2015). Modeling organizational and information systems for effective strategy execution. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(4), 556-578. Nonthakarn, C., Wuwongse, V. (2015). An application profile for research collaboration and information management. Program: electronic library and information systems, 49(3), 242-265. Nowduri, S. (2011). Management information systems and business decision making: review, analysis, and recommendations. Journal of Management and Marketing Research. Peppard, J., Galliers, R., Thorogood, A. (2014). Information systems strategy as practice: Micro strategy and strategizing for IS. Journal of strategic information systems, 23(1), pp. 1-10. Point, T. (2014). Managing information systems. Tutorials point (I) pvt. ltd. Sasvari, P. (2012). A conceptual framework for definition of the correlation between company size categories and the proliferation of business information systems in Hungary. Club of economics in Miskolc' TMP, 8(2), pp. 51-59. Sevrani, K. (2011). Information systems and information technology as strategic tools - their use in Albanian business. Journal of knowledge management, economics and information technology, Scientific papers(6). Sooklal, R., Papadopoulos, T., Ojiako, U. (2011). Information systems development: a normalisation process theory perspective. Industrial Management Data Systems, 111(8), 1270-1286. Ucakturk, A., Villard, M. (2013). The Effects of Management Information and ERP Systems on Strategic Knowledge Management and Decision Making. ScienceDirect. Zare, M., Reza, H. (2013). Management Information Systems and Business. International Journal of Information Science and System, 2(1), 1-8.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The 7 Best WordPress Podcast Plugins Available in 2019

So when do you need WordPress podcast plugins? Well, with podcast listener figures growing over 20% over the last couple of years, there has arguably never been a better time to  jump on the podcasting bandwagon. And while youll certainly have a myriad of creative issues to address between now and launch,  there is also the technical aspect to consider  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ namely, how will you present podcasts on your website?In typical fashion, the WordPress community has responded to its own needs by  developing  a number of WordPress podcast plugins that enable you  to launch  a podcast right on your  website. However, also in keeping with the traditions of WordPress, the market is teeming with options – making it difficult to  make the  best choice for your unique needs.Never fear, however! In this post, we will look at seven of the best WordPress podcast plugins, aka. podcasting plugins on the market, before listing their key features and best use cases  for ea ch.Lets get started!The top WordPress podcast plugins of 2019:1. Seriously Simple Podcasting Seriously Simple Podcasting Author(s): Key features:Run multiple podcasts from the same site – each with their own, unique RSS feed.Gather thorough statistics using the free stats add-on.Supports both audio and video podcasting.Podcast and Series taxonomies help you  manage your podcast episodes.Shortcodes and widgets for displaying podcast episode lists, as well as single episodes anywhere on your site.2. Libsyn Podcasting Libsyn Publisher Hub Author(s): LibsynCurrent Version: Updated: July 15, 86%Ratings 63,462Downloads WP 4.0+Requires Libsyn Podcasting is a renowned podcast hosting solution. Users can sign up to host their episodes, offer their listeners custom mobile apps, study statistics, and much more.Their plugin – which is for Libsyn subscribers only – is currently in beta, but its still an interesting s olution among the other WordPress podcast plugins.The cheapest hosting plan starts from $5 per month, so theres room for both beginners and established podcasters. Most logically, its  an  obvious solution for podcasters wanting  to use WordPress as an extension of their existing Libsyn podcast.Key features:External cloud hosting.Libsyn offers to list their subscribers  podcasts on their podcast directory.HTML5 compatible media player.Custom mobile apps for iOS, Android, and Windows devices.3. Smart Podcast PlayerBrought to you by Pat Flynn – the acclaimed entrepreneur behind Smart Passive Income  Ã¢â‚¬â€œÃ‚  Smart Podcast Player is an extremely  comprehensive example of what WordPress podcast plugins should be, with functionality  that arguably trumps all others. It  includes various library display settings, playback slowing, direct downloads, and more.Perhaps the most alluring feature of Smart Podcast Player is the level of design customization. Other WordP ress podcast plugins lack truly beautiful design options, whereas we feel this is where Smart Podcast Plugin excels. For just one of many examples, it gives you a color palette for your audio track bar, making your podcast feel like a native part of your website.Key features:Extensive design customization features.Support for all MP3-based podcast feeds.Speed up and slow down playback.Automatic library updates.Listeners can download episodes directly from the podcast player.4. Simple Podcast PressSimple Podcast Press is  indeed simple when it comes to configuration, but its impact upon a WordPress website is anything but.To set up  Simple Podcast Press, you simply enter your iTunes or SoundCloud URL, and the plugin will do the rest. Unique  pages for each of your episodes are  created, and a  mobile-friendly  player is inserted. This is automatically accompanied by the full description of your episode, as well as any images taken from your podcast feed. Thereafter, each time you publish a new episode, your WordPress site will automatically update.As you might have guessed, this plugin is ideal for those with an established iTunes or SoundCloud podcast who are looking to showcase it on their website.Key features:Compatible with a wide-range of podcasting solutions, including iTunes and SoundCloud.Automatic URL shortening.Clickable time-stamps.Built-in iTunes review showcasing.5. Blubrry PowerPress PowerPress Podcasting plugin by Blubrry Author(s): BlubrryCurrent Version: 8.0.1Last Updated: October 9, 94%Ratings 1,551,998Downloads WP 3.6+Requires Blubrry PowerPress boasts multiple audio and video player options, subscription tools, and  a mode for quickly kick-starting new podcasting projects.Perhaps the most intriguing feature of this plugin  is the Podcast SEO feature. It  enables you to specify custom episode titles for RSS feeds, and provides guidance on how to make your podcast more visible on Google and iT unes – definitely something to excite podcasters who are looking to grow their audience organically.Key features:Simple and advanced modes.Full iTunes and  Google Play support.Integrated HTML5 media players.Podcasting SEO functionality.Simple podcast importing from SoundCloud, Libsyn, Podbean, Squarespace, or another podcast RSS feed.6. Podlove Podcast Publisher Podlove Podcast Publisher Author(s): PodloveCurrent Version: 2.9.5Last Updated: September 28, 92%Ratings 170,296Downloads WP 4.4+Requires Rather than aiming to import and rely on third-party podcast platforms, Podlove Podcast Publisher has been built with WordPress in mind. It  comes bundled with a subscription feature and a detailed analytics engine.A key differentiating feature is Podloves custom templating system. It enables  you to access every piece of code related to your podcast data, so you can modify the appearance and experience to your hear ts content.Furthermore, the plugins functionality is  modular, enabling advanced users to tailor the back end interface to their requirements. We think it goes without saying that this one is for podcasters who  dont mind delving into code to customize their experience.Key features:Ships with a subscription feature.Powerful analytics.HTML5-compatible web player with touch support.Chapter support to help manage episodes.A flexible templating system, and modular by nature.7. Buzzsprout Podcasting Buzzsprout Podcasting Author(s): BuzzsproutCurrent Version: 1.5Last Updated: October 14, 100%Ratings 26,282Downloads WP 2.7+Requires Buzzsprout Podcasting is another premium solution with a free WordPress plugin. It offers iTunes support, HTML5 players, statistics, and more. Their free plan allows for up to two hours of podcasting a month, with hosting for just 90 days. The cheapest plan thereafter – which includes indefinite hosting †“ is $12 per month. Their most expensive premium plan comes in at a hefty $24 per month, allowing for 12 hours of podcasting. Most podcasters will not plan on broadcasting as often as that, although power users may not want such (expensive) restrictions. Thus, wed recommend Buzzsprout to those who podcast in moderation.Key features:External hosting.Simple podcast migration tool.HTML5 players.Powerful play-by-play analytics engine.ConclusionWith the growing  popularity of podcasting, its nice to know that – as per usual – WordPress has you covered. However, each of the plugins above will serve you in a slightly different way, so be mindful  of which one you opt for.To recap, here are the seven strongest WordPress podcast plugins once again, along with our recommended best use cases:Seriously Simple Podcasting:  For beginners to podcasting.Libsyn Podcasting: For those who want to host their podcast outside of WordPress.Smart Podcast Player: For power users.Simple Podcast Press:  For  podcasters looking to expand their reach  via a website.Blubrry PowerPress:  For organic growth through SEO.Podlove Podcast Publisher:  For a modular and customizable experience.Buzzsprout Podcasting: For podcasters who dont broadcast too frequently.Finally, if you plan on launching a new WordPress website to host your podcast, our article  10 things you need to do right after launching a WordPress site  will point you in the right direction.Are you looking to dip your toe into the podcasting waters? Know of any other cool WordPress podcast plugins? Let us know about your experiences in the comments section below!Free guide5 Essential Tips to Speed Up Your WordPress SiteReduce your loading time by even 50-80% just by following simple tips.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The National Numeracy Strategy Essay Example

The National Numeracy Strategy Essay The National Numeracy Strategy (DfEE 1999: part 1, p.12) requires teachers to identify mistakes, using them as positive teaching points by talking about them and any misconceptions that led to them. When dealing with a childs errors in their work it is not enough to simply mark them as wrong, the child must be given the opportunity to develop a greater level of understanding through correction. This may not simply be re-calculating a sum, but revising their ideas and concepts of the particular topic area. According to Skemp (1989) by the process of understanding, that which began as an error becomes a contribution to knowledge p.200. As identified in Pollard Tann (1993) it is also true that if a child is allowed to continuously make errors in the same subject or on the same topic the child can be caught in a vicious circle in which failure leads to anxiety which leads to further failure p. 68. Children too, experience frustration when they cannot reach their goals and repeated failure may result in loss of confidence and self-esteem. Teachers must provide the opportunity for the child to attain their targets. We will write a custom essay sample on The National Numeracy Strategy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The National Numeracy Strategy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The National Numeracy Strategy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Once the teacher realises the necessity to identify the misconstrued knowledge/concepts, they must discover underlying problems in the most accurate way. To simply study the childs work shows a self-important belief that the teacher can understand what the child is thinking. It is only by discussing with the child their ideas and perceptions that the true reasons for the misconceptions become evident. Alice states that multiplication makes numbers larger and division makes numbers smaller. Alices statements will be accurate when applied to the contexts of multiplication and division that she is most likely to be familiar with, for example positive integers. When children are first introduced to multiplication in school, they become familiar with the terms lots of and sets of, this then leads to an understanding of multiplication as repeated addition, which is often one of the first strategies introduced to children to tackle multiplication questions. One example of this is identified in Suggate et al (1998): Again the assumption could be made that because subtraction makes numbers smaller so too will division. So closely linking these four operations and not distinguishing the differences will map properties of one onto the other. Skemp (1989) identifies how introducing multiplication as repeated addition can lead to further problems, this [repeated addition] works well for the counting numbers, but it does not apply to multiplication of the other kinds of number which children will subsequently encounter; so to teach it this way is making difficulties for the future p.144. He goes on to identify the multiplication of negative numbers and fractions as being an area where children will develop problems. This thinking is reinforced by the Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS) project where whole number computations and extensions to fractions and decimals were considered (Hart 1981); conclusions note that many children are still only groping towards ideas of multiplication a nd division. Alices teacher would need to discuss, with her, all the ideas and concepts she holds about multiplication and division. Only by exploring the childs understanding of underlying concepts and principles will the reason for the misconceptions become apparent. As already mentioned the teachers assessment of the reason for a childs errors may not be accurate purely by studying their work.  A starting point to rectify the misconception would be to identify in the NNS (DfEE 1999) what understanding Alice should have acquired by her age. Children, according to the NNS (DfEE 1999), do not encounter multiplication or division until year 2, and confirms my previous thinking that children are to understand the two operations as repeated addition and subtraction. It is not until year 4 that children multiply and divide decimals and fractions and examine related theory, such as the commutative law. Alice needs to be taught that multiplication and division are more than just complicated forms of addition and subtraction. There is more to multiplication and division than just computing sums. According to Nunes Bryant (1996) The child must learn about and understand an entirely new set of number meanings and a new set of invariants, all of which are related to multiplication and division, but not to addition and subtraction p.144. Research conducted by Hoyles, Noss Sutherland in 1992 showed an ingenious method to enable children to see that multiplication does not always make numbers bigger. The children were asked to reach a target number (e.g. 100) from a starting point (e.g. 13) through successive multiplications. The pupils easily overshot the target and therefore had to face the question: how do you make numbers smaller by multiplying them? The research identified this as a significant question, which helps pupils see the discontinuity between addition and multiplication. This type of activity along with one related to division could be used in school to highlight concepts children may not have realised. By addressing difficulties within topics early on children are prevented from forming certain misconceptions. The next stage for the teacher would be to decide how to prevent these sorts of misconceptions occurring in following years. It is apparent that Alices previous teaching has not allowed her to access the topic in a way that she can understand it. Teachers must consider both their teaching styles and childrens learning styles when approaching areas that children can easily misconstrue. The following years class should be given the opportunity to explore the concepts and theory behind multiplication and division, this may not be in line with the NNS (DfEE 1999)) order, but may provide those children with a greater comprehension of the operations they are carrying out. Once they are confident with the reasoning their manipulation and computation of numbers should be secure due to their underlying understanding. Emilys work shows four calculations with vulgar fractions. It is apparent that she is working horizontally to complete the sums either adding or subtracting the two numerators and the two denominators. The NNS (DfEE 1999) identifies that children from year 4 upwards should recognise the equivalence between fractions and at year 5 should be able to recognise from practical work simple relationships between fractions part 6 p.23. It appears from Emilys work that she does not understand the relationships. In the first question (shown below) she has to add two fractions with the same denominator.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management The Human Resource Management (HRM) refers to the section of an organization associated with a set of unique, best practices that aim to recruit, develop, reward and manage people in ways that create high performance systems (Bratton, and Gold 2012). Others view HRM as a simple repackaging of good personnel management practices (Som 2008).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two definitions show that development in human resource depends on the changes in the markets, social movements, and public policies that are the products of economic and political changes within the society (Nienhueser 2011). HRM started during the industrial revolution in England (Bratton and Gold 2012). According to Nienhà ¼ser and Warhurst (2012), HRM serves to ensure that the organization can achieve success through the proper utilization of employees. More specifically, it aims at increasing organizational effectiveness and capability by use of the available resources. The human resource is concerned with the rights and needs of people through social responsibility (Nienhà ¼ser and Warhurst 2012). The social responsibilities are the responsibilities that the organization has to the society, consumers, suppliers and employees (Nienhà ¼ser and Warhurst 2012). The human resource goals include strategic integration, high commitment, high quality and flexibility (Armstrong 2009, p. 32). The HRM has a number of theories. This includes the strategic HRM theory which is the principal HRM theory (Huselid, 1995). This theory interlinks the employee power and resources to the targeted strategic organizational goals. The theory’s implicit assumption is that a good fit between human resource and the internal and external context can be linked to high performance (Huselid, 1995). However, organizational performance and achievement of goals is attributed to signifi cant factors that are employee related. These are skills, dedication, commitment and productivity. The second theory is knowledge management theory (Huselid, 1995). This theory lists that the organizational outcomes is based on the knowledge of its employees. It adopts a systematic approach that motivates information sharing amongst the employees in order to achieve greater productivity. Another HRM theory is the organizational culture development theory (Huselid, 1995). It takes into account the employees behavioral responses. In general, organizational culture refers to the values and practices upon which an organization is based. Additionally, it plays a major role in determining employees effectiveness and efficiency (Armstrong 2009).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The HRM is characterized by its ability to respond accurately and effectively to the organizatio ns environment. It also complements other organizational system and delivers added value through the strategic development of the organizations. The HRM covers a vast environment of activities with a range of variation across occupations, organizational levels, business units, firms, industries, and societies (Som 2008). There are two versions of HRM: the hard and soft versions of human resource. Hard HRM is a practical approach where people are viewed as passive resources purposed to be used, deployed as well as dispose where necessary. On the other hand, soft HRM is based on humanism. Thus, it is devoted to human interest that views people as responsible and progressive being (Nienhueser 2011). There are the four main roles of human resource professional. They include managing strategic human resources, managing employee contribution, managing transformation and change, and lastly, is managing human infrastructure to support line managers (Kelly and Kelly 1991). Managers need to u nderstand how ethical dimensions of human resource policy and practice fit into the present and future picture. Lastly, they should be able to make a powerful business case for any proposals regarding the development of human resource strategy (Armstrong 2009, p. 104-135). There are factors that influence the level of individual performance in an organization. These factors are motivation, ability, and opportunity to participate in the organization activities. The impacts of motivation on performance depend on the capability of the employee. On the other hand, the capacity to perform depends on the employee. The effects of motivation on performance are additive but interactive (Balnave, Brown, Maconachie and Stone 2007; Huselid 1995). The three factors need to be observed by the concerned organization for it to make progress. As mentioned earlier, people are the most important resources in an organization. Thus, there are ways that have been developed to ensure that an organization obtains and keeps the people it requires. This is vital since it ensures continuity of good personnel in the organization thus facilitating succession. This important function is usually performed by the department of HRM (Thompson and McHugh 2009). The human resource uses different strategies to ensure that it has the best personnel/staff in their organization. The first one is human resource planning. Here, the business assesses the present and future human resource needs of the organization. The second strategy is creating an employer brand.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is done by developing the existing workforce in the organization. This is whereby the organization plans on increasing the flexibility of the available human resource. The other strategy is talent management, recruitment and selection, and absent management strategies. Here, the or ganization decides on whether it needs employees from within the organization or outside, recruits, selects, orients and then trains (Armstrong, 2009). Overall, HRM deals mainly with workforce management and regulation within an organization aimed at enhancing its performance. This is well explained using the various principal theories, versions, roles and strategies of HRM. Reference List Armstrong, M 2009, Armstrongs handbook of performance management: An evidence-based guide to delivering high performance, Kogan Page, London. Balnave, N, Brown, J, Maconachie, G and Stone, R 2007, Employment Relations in Australia, Wiley Sons, Australia. Bratton, J and Gold, J 2012, HRM: Theory and Practice, Palgrave, London. Huselid, MA 1995, The Impact Of Human Resource Management Practices On Turnover, Productivity, And Corporate Financial Performance, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 38 no. 3, pp. 635-672. Kelly, J and Kelly, C 1991, †Them and Us†: Social Psychology and â€Å" The New Industrial Relations†, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol, 29, no. 1, pp. 25-48.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nienhueser, W 2011, Empirical Research on Human Resource Management as a Production of Ideology, Management Revue, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 367-393. Nienhà ¼ser, W and Warhurst, C 2012, â€Å"Comparative Employment Relations: Definitional, Disciplinary and Development Issues‟ in C Brewster and W Mayrhofer (eds), Handbook of Research in Comparative HRM, Edward Elgar, Aldershot. Som, A 2008, Innovative Human Resource Management and corporate performance in the context of economic liberalization in India, The International Journal of HRM, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1278–1297. Thompson, P and McHugh, D 2009, Work Organisations, Palgrave, London. Human Resource Management Introduction The expression used to refer to human resource management has substituted the conventional phrase for personnel management. The management of human resources is a more tactical and rational approach in the administration of individuals than personnel management.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It entails selection, recruitment, training, development and compensation of human resources (Storey, 1998: 20). Human resource is responsible for managing the labor force as the most important asset in the organization. The aim of human resource management is to empower workers to work effectively to achieve the organizations objectives. Human resources use continuing strategies to develop the workforce in an organization. Human Resource Management is an indispensable element in the performance of a corporate organization and works together with other dep artments to achieve the organization’s goals. The tasks of the human resource consultant are centralized on the advancement of the labor force in a corporate organization. His strategies should be in line with the needs of the organization. Today, HR practitioners are the strategic partners to an organization. They assist in the improvement of strategies used to realize the organization’s arrangements and aims. Their responsibilities include: selection and recruitment, recognition and rewarding, development of performance contracts and appraisal, employee development and succession planning. This paper gives a description of the human resource activities at Alfalah Bank in Pakistan, explores the major issues faced by the organization, gives a discussion of the implication of the issues, and possible solutions for the issues. Alfalah Bank’s HRM Practices Recruitment This can be defined as the process of searching for applicants and encouraging them to apply for v acant positions in a firm. There are mainly two types of recruitment process: internal and external. Internal staffing is the sealing of vacant positions by choosing from existing employees in a corporate organization where as exterior staffing is the filling of job vacancies by receiving applications from outside the organization (Armstrong, 2006:53). At bank Alfalah, recruitment is made by filling three kinds of job categories for growth and expansion, these are: trainee officers, contractual employees, and top managerial staff. Recruitment is based on the level of requirement needed in each job category. For top managerial posts, the HR officials use either the internal or external sources based on experience and qualification. Trainee officers are recruited through external sources as well as the contractual employees. For both the internal and external recruitment, the organization uses, newspapers, website, and direct application as sources for recruitment (Akber, 2009:20).Adv ertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The recruitment process is normally carried out through the following sources Newspapers and magazines Website Training and development of present employees Retired persons One of the major parts of the process is the online recruitment. It is fast and efficient for both organizations and the applicant. On the website, the registration function is posted together with the available posts. It also gives a lot of information on the roles of the successful candidate and the cultural values and ethics of the organization. Almost half of the total workforce in Pakistan is recruited through the website. Selection Selection is the process of establishing the ideal candidate to fill a certain post. During this process the human resources management looks for recruits who not only are suitable for an immediate post but also for the organizat ion’s development. Standard documentations are used by majority of human resource managers. This documentation compares the job roles to the qualities and skills of the recruits (Bohlander Snell, 2009:6). After the selection process, the successful applicants are notified of their appointment and an induction and training process commences (Compton, Nankervis, 2009:3). At Alfalah Bank, the selection procedure is conducted by the HR officials. For a candidate to qualify for a vacancy in the bank, he must be, a citizen of Pakistan, possess the required qualification having a post-graduate degree or a bachelor’s degree and be aged between 18 and 35 years. After receiving the application forms, candidates with the right requirements are short listed for a written interview. Those who pass the written interview are called for an oral interview where each candidate is given a topic to debate on. Those who pass this test are called for a panel interview. The panel interview is conducted by the president of Alfalah Bank at the head office. Successful candidates are offered the post and training commences (Akber, 2009:25). Issues Human Resource Planning The major issue at Alfalah Bank is Human resource planning. This is the establishment of approaches that are to be used in matching the workforce skills to the needs of an organization. It is the procedure that is used in recruitment, employee retention, and optimization of human resources employment that is needed to achieve organization goal. Human resource planning involves analysis of skills of current workforce, forecasting manpower, and being responsive of customers demand (Holland De Cieri, 2006:102).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Human resource planning is important in every organization because it helps the top management to view HR practices in relation to business decision. The lack of it makes Human resources expensive because HRM can not foresee future problems in order to solve them before they become uncontrollable. It should therefore be incorporated because it guarantees that the relevant individuals are absorbed, in the right position and at the precise time (Harris, et al., 2003:46). Information needed in human resource planning include: identification of the different departments in the organization, analysis of HRM changes in implementation of its strategies, and recruitment and selection procedures used to address these changes (Smith Mazin, 2004:49). Rate of Redundancy The other issue is the ever increasing rate of redundancy. Redundancy is a situation where a business requirement of employee’s specific responsibilities is expected to cease or have already ceased. It occurs when a business relocates, changes it technology, becomes mechanized or launches new services and products. The selection criterion for redundancy is b ased on: the number of employees involved in the redundancy, the skills and experience of employees, and reasons for the redundancy (Ferris, et al, 1995:6). Different organizations use different selection criteria for redundancy. At Alfalah Bank, the redundancy procedure is conducted by the HR practitioners. Employee information regarding performance, attendance as reflected in the attendance record, contribution to the organization, experience, skills, and qualifications is gathered. Before selection for redundancy commences, the organization consults the line managers and HR department on matters relevant to the legislation (Holland, et al, 2007:74). The selection process then commences with guidance from the supporting management under the prevailing circumstances. The number of redundancies necessary is established keeping in mind the skills needed to meet the organizations future goals. (Hammonds, 2003:15). The increase in the number of redundancies at Alfalah Bank has reduced production and customer’s trust for the services offered at the Bank. Solutions Job Evaluation One way of ensuring that human resources are planned properly is through job evaluations. This is an organized grading of jobs according to other jobs in the organization. Job evaluation or classification is normally done when a job position becomes vacant and need to be filled by recruiting a person for the correct level based on the responsibilities (Ulrich, 1996:230). It can also be done when the responsibilities of a job changes. Different organizations use different job evaluation systems depending on their employee groups. Job evaluation system requires the use of job description, occupational standards or guidelines and job category (Legge, 2004:10). There exist four mainly used work assessment methods these are: categorization, positioning, the point method, and factor evaluation. Classification is a method in job evaluation where jobs are categorized according to their clas s description such as clerical job, managerial jobs, the list is endless (Bratton Gold, 2001:72).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This method is commonly used in the service sector where job are classified by comparison with other job classes. After the process of job classification is over, a pay grade is matched with the job. Ranking of job is a line of job appraisal where jobs are graded from highest to the lowest (taking into consideration their value to the business culture). Point evaluation method is a quantitative kind of approach where jobs are assigned points according to their compensable factors. The points allocated to each job are then weighted and their total points tabulated. The total points determine the value of the job to the organization and its pay. Factor comparison appraisal is based on the compensable factors e.g. experience, responsibilities among others. Jobs are ranked on the basis of their value to the organization. Job salaries are determined by the pay rate of these compensable factors (Swamson, 2009:52). Motivational Theory and Reward Remuneration and reward of employees are som e of the ways that can be used to retain employees. By reward we mean that the efforts of the employee are recognized. Singling out and rewarding workers inspires them to look for ways of undertaking their tasks effectively and lack of it can completely dishearten them. A reward system has to be effective and be able to instill the desired behavior for efficient performance (Boudreau Ramstad, 2007:60). The reward system can either use financial mechanism or non-financial. People need to be encouraged and appreciated in order to achieve their mission and that of others. Abraham Maslow (a researcher), explored the connection between reward and motivation and came up with a theory called Maslow’s hierarchy of need. Maslow discovered that human beings have different types of needs that they want to be met. They include; basic needs security, self esteem, self actualization and group needs. To fulfill these needs, sets of motivating rewards have to be used. Some of the basic need s can be fulfilled through provision of good standards of living by means of honest pay structures (Anon. â€Å"Human needs and rewards† 2010:1). Provision of secure working environment coupled with training on safety and health issues can assist in meeting the security needs of the employees. On the other hand, reward systems on job promotion based on employee’s efforts, skills, and experience can help in raising their self esteem and meet the needs that come with it. Employees’ team working groups that are well structured with good communication help in fulfilling the group needs. Self actualization needs can be fulfilled by encouraging employee developments by use of appraisal tool where employees gauge their performance (McNamara, 2010:2). According to Wilkinson (1988:50), the HRM should use a reward system that helps in meeting most of employees’ needs. This will encourage employees and motivate them to work harder to achieve the organizations goals and objectives which in turn will lead to increased production and consequently lower the redundancy rate (Stone, 2008:20). Reference List Akber, Naila, 2009, Human Resource Management (Bank Alfalah HRM Report) Web. Anon. 2010, Human needs and rewards Web. Armstrong, Michael 2006, A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th ed.). London, Kogan. Bohlander, George Snell, Scott. 2009, Managing Human Resources. London, Cengage Learning. Boudreau, J.W. Ramstad, P.M. 2007, Beyond HR: The new science of human capital. Boston, Harvard Business School Press. Bratton, John Gold, Jeffrey. 2001, Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. London, Routledge. Compton, R. L. Nankervis, Alan. 2009, Effective recruitment selection practice. CCH Australia Limited. Ferris, Gerald. et al, 1995, Handbook of human resource management. Blackwell HRM series, Blackwell human resource management series. New York, Wiley-Blackwell. Hammonds, S. Engelke., 2003, Redundancy. Legal essentials L aw at work. London, CIPD Publishing. Harris, Hillary et al., 2003, International human resource management. London, CIPD Publishing. Holland, P. De Cieri, H. (Eds.) 2006, Contemporary issues in human resource development, Pearson Education, Sydney. Holland, P., et al, 2007, Contemporary Issues and Challenges in HRM, Prahran. Tilde University Press. Legge, Karen. 2004, Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities (Anniversary Ed.). Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. McNamara, Carter, 2010, Human Resource Management (and talent Management) Web. Smith, A. Shawn Mazin, A. Rebecca. 2004, The HR answer book: an indispensable guide for managers and human resources professionals. New York, Amacom Div American Mgmt Assn. Stone, Raymond J. 2008, Human Resource Management, John Wiley Sons, Australia, 6th Edition. Storey, John. 1998, New perspectives on human resource management. London, Cengage Learning EMEA. Swamson, Richard. 2009, Foundations of Human Resource Development: Easy read L arge Edition. San Francisco, Ulrich, Dave 1996, Human Resource Champions. The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass, Harvard Business School Press. Wilkinson, A. 1988, Empowerment: theory and practice. Personnel Review 27 (1): 40–56. Human Resource Management Background Information Effective human resource management is essential for any company to succeed. This entails efficient management of the workforce in order to promote the performance of the company. The human resource at Proctor and Gamble is charged with the responsibility of ensuring excellent service delivery by the company’s employees and this positively impacts on the company’s remarkable global performance and this can partly be attributed to efficient management of the business (Anonymous 2010).Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company’s human resource sector aims at maintaining a skilled workforce as well as attracting the best talent to join the company’s workforce in order to ensure it enjoys high and efficient output from its human capital, which is essential for the good performance of the company. Further, the organization puts more emphasis on evaluation and measurement of employees’ engagement and commitment to the roles assigned to them and has in addition established initiatives to promote involvement of the employees in the company’s strategic activities as well as sustenance of benefits. To ensure that it achieves high standards of human resource management, the company has established and developed a human resource department that comprises of change agents, team builders advisors among other human resource specialists who constantly engage in activities aimed at motivating employees and promoting their welfare as well as ensuring the provision of a skilled pool of labor to the company through transparent recruitment of new qualified employees. Human Resource Requirement for Service Being part of Proctor and Gamble human resource team entails the responsibility of developing systems and tools that are directed towards attracting a skilled pool of labor, reward and motivation of the existing employees as well as challenging the employees in order to promote efficiency, innovation, and invention (Anonymous 2010). The human resource management is expected to promote and protect the company’s values, purpose, and principles through inspiring, enabling, and engaging the company’s employees as well as acting as change agents in order to drive towards positive transformation of the company and provide a solid foundation for the company’s culture, external environment as well as company’s goals (Anonymous 2010). The Human resource manager is not only expected to be academically qualified in the field but also has to possess qualities of good leadership coupled with social responsibility which is necessary when dealing with people from diverse backgrounds and social settings who make up the workforce.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 1 5% OFF Learn More Consultation with Stakeholders Proctor and Gamble ensures involvement of the human resource sector as an ultimate business partner in order to promote increase in the company’s growth. This is because the human resource sector ensures that there is simplification of work processes in the company and promotes the creation of a culture that focuses on innovation through pro active labor relations (Anonymous 2010). In addition, the human resource sector in the company seeks to understand and address the needs and wishes of potential employees as well as the current employees in order to strengthen the company’s position as an attractive employer (Anonymous 2010). At Proctor and Gamble, developing the employees into future leaders is one of the major long term strategies of the company. Options required for delivery of service Being on the forefront towards provision of intensely competitive consumer goods in the market, PG puts consumer s atisfaction as the major company’s priority and aims at understanding consumer needs better than their competitors (Lafley 2001). To achieve this, the company’s management must connect these needs to an innovative engine that results in production of improved products that meet the consumer needs (Lafley 2001). Consequently, the human resource manager must have the ability to mobilize the employees towards the achievement of this goal. Service Specifications Being a human resource manager in this company requires you to work on assignments and tasks covering the major areas of human resource management, based on Dave Ulrich human resource champion model (Anonymous 2010). In addition, the human resource executives are expected to map and analyze the company’s salary planning in order to assess its effectiveness in line with the company’s goals, values, and objectives (Anonymous 2010). Agreed roles and responsibilities The human resource managers organize s trategic plans such as those aiming at ensuring team effectiveness improvements; to achieve this, the human resource department facilitates and supports team events by providing constructive suggestions and ensuring implementation of agreed action plan in order to help the teams to become more efficient and effective (Anonymous 2010). Through focus groups and individual interviews, the human resource management can gather adequate data to generate recommendations for Proctor and Gamble on areas requiring improvement in the company’s workforce while putting into consideration the long term vision of the company (Anonymous 2010). In addition, the human resource management is charged with the responsibility of recruiting and evaluating the company’s employees.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Training Support for Human Resource Management In 2 001, the research and development management at Proctor and Gamble called on its human resource to establish and develop a formal training program for its human capital and although these training programs had been in existence in the 80s and 90s, the programs had been gradually diminished in the 90s as a result of the company’s resource issues as well as competing priorities which dictated redirection of investment into other vital areas (Owen and Klein 2007). However, due to the increased need for advanced knowledge and skilled labor at every level of management in the contemporary economy, the leadership at Proctor and Gamble emphasized that the human resource development through the establishment of a corporate university which would have ensured a direct link between corporate learning efforts and the company’s goals (Owen and Klein 2007). A further evidence of the company’s commitment to learning can be highlighted by its collaboration with Accenture which assumed the responsibility for development and maintenance of advanced management systems which have promoted high performance in Proctor and Gamble through the development of internal capabilities in strategic critical core components such as human resource management (Accenture 2009). Accenture played a major role in development of skilled and knowledgeable workforce in Proctor and Gamble by ensuring that PG met its learning objectives through the provision of leading and advanced technologies, enhanced business skills and deep knowledge of the operational management systems in order to promote efficiency in its operations through increasing output of the employees (Accenture 2009). Proctor and Gamble has consequently advanced a robust maintenance support system which ensures reliability of the management system as well as allowing the company to reach its rising global demand for web based training and through the accessibility of the system to over ninety thousands Proctor and Gamble employees, the application has further served to reduce overall operational cost of the company (Accenture, 2009). In addition, a study conducted by Accenture revealed a strong correlation between high performance and the priority that companies place on human capital which further justifies development of an efficient human resource management in Proctor and Gamble. Timelines In order to develop a skilled pool of labor among the existing workforce, one of the major strategies of Proctor and Gamble was to establish a corporate university which entailed formal training for the company’s employees in diverse environment and departments of the organization (Owen and Klein 2007). The human resource faced numerous challenges in the implementation of this move but eventually achieved remarkable success from its implementation.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The human resource management utilized the corporate strategy model through which they sought to breakdown the entire process into basic questions and then provide answers to these questions in order to achieve the intended goal (Owen and Klein 2007). The leadership further sought to define the desired workforce that the company aimed at achieving through the agreement of desired level of competencies among various groups of target learners (Owen and Klein 2007). This was further followed by actual analysis of the state of the existing workforce performance in the company. The corporate strategy sought to define the goals and inspirations of the company as well as facilitating the establishment of the scope of influence in the training program and pioneered the initial description of the company’s goal to succeed (Owen and Klein 2007). Establishment of the research and development universities have served to enhance knowledge and skills among managers and other officials who have consequently transmitted their knowledge to their juniors leading to a culture that upholds knowledge and skills in the organization. Quality assurance measures Proctor and Gamble embrace the philosophy of quality assurance by ensuring that they deliver products of superior quality to the consumers as well as provision of business environment that is condusive for effective performance of quality systems in the company (Anonymous 2010). In order to achieve its quality assurance measures, the corporation ensures provision of superior quality goods to consumers as well ensuring corporate responsibility towards their employees and the community at large (Anonymous 2010). This is evident in the corporation efforts to safeguard its employees against harm y providing a safe working environment. The company is headed for greater success in future due to its implementation of quality assurance measures. Ethical Service Delivery standards and their consistency with organizational code o f conduct The company’s code of ethics outlines the mode of governance in the company and governs the way the affairs of the company are governed (Anonymous, 2010). In addition, the code of ethics outlines the duties of various managers and officials in the company consequently forming basic fundamental rule for the company’s activities (Anonymous, 2010). Proctor and Gamble has formulated guidelines which ensure quality service provision as well as ethical conduct of its employees. Officers in the company are allowed to hold to or more offices but they are prohibited from executing, acknowledging and verifying any instrument in more than one capacity if the instrument is required by the company’s regulation to be executed, acknowledged and verified by two or more officers (Anonymous 2010). This serves to minimize incidences of subjective decision making, discrimination, and corruption among other negative aspects that may arise in leadership positions as well as the recruitment process (Anonymous 2010). These officials are further elected objectively by the board of directors for a predetermined period of time and can further be removed from office by the board upon incidences of misconduct (Anonymous 2010). The board commonly holds annual elections to in order to appoint officials who under normal circumstances hold the office until the end of a specified period of time after which a qualified successor is elected (Anonymous 2010). In addition, any vacancies created in the official positions as a result of death, resignation or other inevitable factors, the board is charged with the responsibility of electing a successor to hold the office for the remaining period of time pending the official election period (Anonymous 2010). This further promotes transparency and consistency in the recruitment process. All officers are expected to effectively perform their duties and take full responsibility of all the duties assigned to them by their se niors. The code of ethics regulates the treatment of human resource in this major corporation by ensuring the implementation of one of its major policies which involves the recognition of interests of the employees in the same token that the company addresses its own interests (Anonymous 2010). For instance, the board of directors is authorized in its discretion to maintain a profit sharing plan, adequate benefit and pension plan as well as granting employees a chance to be heard in matters regarding conduct of business but this goes as far as the board of directors limits (Anonymous 2010). To further promote employee participation towards good performance of the company, the board of directors assists the employees to form part of the company’s ownership by becoming shareholders which further promotes their welfare (Anonymous 2010). Monitoring the Process of Recruitment In most organizations, the process of recruitment is often blurred with malpractices, corruption and often ignores the company’s outlined procedures for recruitment. It is therefore vital for the company to effectively monitor the process of recruitment to ensure fair and objective appointment of qualified personnel. The company may appoint an independent body to oversee the recruitment process after which the independent body submits an extensive report of the procedure followed during recruitment. In addition, the company may conduct an independent survey to assess the productivity of the recruited employee in order to ascertain that he is qualified for the job. Unethical behavior reporting Employment discrimination is a common unethical behavior prevalent in recruitment process and is usually based on race, gender, nationality, and age among other subjective factors which have overall negative long term consequences on the performance of a company (Lucas 2006). The government of United States has put in measures to protect against employment discrimination by enacting laws tha t govern such practices. For instance, the congress enacted the age discrimination in employment act of 1967 which aimed at protecting older people from being discriminated against in job recruitment as a result of their age as well as ensuring that the employees are provided with benefits regardless of their ages (Lucas 2006). Discrimination against older is one of the most common and often ignored form of discrimination in job recruitments. The business culture in most parts of the world perceive the old as less productive relative to the young consequently preferring the young population as worthwhile investment since they have a lower mortality rate and are more healthy (Lucas 206). These preconceived and often false notions may result to unethical practices in employment recruitments giving rise to illegal discriminations against workers in Proctor and Gamble (Lucas 206). Therefore it is important for Proctor and Gamble to ensure that its human resource does not discriminate em ployees based on subjective practices and should ensure that the process is consistent and transparent. Dealing With Measurements and Variations Forced ranking is one of the controversial methods commonly used by major companies to evaluate the performance of the companies whereby employees are ranked against each other based on a particular scheme or design (Lucas 2006). Some companies rank their employees according to the normal distribution curve which they use to identify low and high performers while others place their employees on the quartiles depending on their performance with the low performers occupying the first quarter and the highest performers occupying the last quarter (Lucas 2006). The high performing candidates are eligible to pay increments, bonuses and job promotions while low performing employees lack such privileges. Forced ranking identifies and rewards good performers and forces out the poor performers consequently ensuring that the company improves the loyal workforce and remains competitive in the industry (Lucas 2006). This method of ranking is preferred due to its discriminatory effect towards the non productive workforce and its emphasis on the talented and energetic (Lucas 2006). Companies that have adopted this method of evaluation reject the premise that it is illegal and unethical and emphasizes that it has a valid business purpose (Lucas 2006). However, these evaluation models also display elements of discrimination whereby the older employees are placed at the lower grades in order for the employers to maintain a cheaper and less expensive workforce without breaking the provision of the law governing discrimination against aged workers (Lucas 2006). Consequently, the forced ranking system may facilitate discrimination by acting as a disguise for intentional and illegal age discrimination (Lucas 206). Data from survey of clients and feedback from clients Proctor and Gamble markets over 250 brands across the globe and have a co nsumer base of nearly five billion consumers in over 130 countries (Lafley 2001). The company has achieved remarkable success in consumer satisfaction in its service provision which can e proven y the company’s numerous honorary awards such as being featured in the Fortune magazine’s world’s most admired companies list from 1985 to 2001 and the inclusion in 2001 list of top 50 Net savvy U.S organizations (Lafley 2001). Further, the company has achieved increased profitability over the years which serve to prove popularity of their products across the consumer base. In the fiscal year of 2001, the employees delivered total revenue of $ 39.2 billion (Lafley 2001). Recommended changes for Future Service Delivery Proctor and Gamble should ensure that they retain the older workers since they have a wealth of experience necessary for effective performance of the company (Lucas 2006). Proctor and Gamble should consequently device mechanisms to provide jobs that attract and accommodate older workers into the business environment. This is only possible through the creation of a culture that promotes and honors experience by the human resource emphasizing on qualities such as experience knowledge and expertise rather than energy, fast pace and fresh thinking (Lucas 2006). The human resource of Proctor and Gamble should focus more on role playing exercises as well as the individual ability to handle jobs relevant situations when interviewing applicants rather than focusing on psychometric and verbal reasoning skills in order to provide an equal opportunity for older employees to compete in the job market (Lucas 2006). The company should also provide flexible retirement rates for its employees; most firms have in the past offered early retirements incentives to reduce costs which have consequently resulted in shifting of costs from employee health care accounts into retiree health care accounts (Lucas 2006). Proctor and Gamble should device mechanisms to accommodate and leverage the older segment of the population by allowing the employee to take a specified period of time retirement after which he is reinstated as an independent contractor and this will enable the company to benefit from this pool of experience for execution of special projects (Lucas 2006). Reference List Accenture, 2009. High performance delivered, consulting, technology, outsourcing- helping Proctor and Gamble strengthen a culture of high performance through its learning process. Chicago, Accenture publishing. Anonymous, 2010. PG careers in Western Europe; human resource at Proctor and Gamble-code of regulations. Cincinnati, Proctor and Gamble. Lafley, A G 2001, Cisco success stories: Proctor and Gamble Cisco systems. Available at: Lucas, P. 2006. Age Discrimination-Unethical, Illegal and a Missed Business Opportunity for US Business. Web. Owen, L., Klein, E. 2007. First Steps: Instituting Proctor and Gamble†™s RD Corporate University. Ohio, Proctor and Gamble.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Single European Market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

The Single European Market - Essay Example 25). It may prove to be difficult to complete the single European Market due to ineffective implementation, amends and enforcement. Though the heterodoxy of the measures to implement the Single market in Europe is gradually improving, insufficient transposition is still a worry. 56% of the European Single market measures have been changed in every member state (Pohl & Sorsa, 1992, pp. 34). Significant delays and poor quality changes have been noted in the member states which have prevented the businesses from taking full advantage of the potential for the single market. The member states have also tried to use different change proficiencies which have resulted to legislations with legal worries and interpretation problems. This has increased the compliance costs for the interested parties who have to bear with different prerequisites in the different member states they go (Pohl & Sorsa, 1992, pp. 35). Mismatched enforcement of the European Union statute law hampers fair competition i n the single market and thus a barrier to the implementation of the single market in Europe (Barnard, 2002, pp. 46). ... ll sabotage the high level of the protection which the statute law intend to hold and the aberration of competition between the producers due to the differences in the way the application of the European Union Single market is enforced in the different member states (Barnard, 2002, pp. 50). The businesses in the different states may consider this as a way of discriminating between them due to the unevenness in the way it is enforced. Another problem may arise where the market opening bank on the mutual recognition rationale. The inspectors in one state may have problems in distinguishing the different necessities required for the different products or service suppliers to fulfill or in measuring the adjustability to the requirements by the suppliers (Pohl & Sorsa, 1992, pp. 41). The absence of efficient and effective redress may hinder the implementation of the European single market. The rendering of efficient redresses demand a chain of means and methods which involve the identific ation of default items to the disposition and setting standards to remove such goods from the market or setting up punishments and penalties for anyone dealing with the defective items (Pohl & Sorsa, 1992, pp. 43). Due to pores in the legislative framework, most of the proposals of the European Union have not been taken up and the market relaxation of the segments which had not been covered up by the program has not been accomplished (Pohl & Sorsa, 1992, pp. 55). Due to the failure of the European Union to establish a simplified and consistent taxation system and elimination of discriminations in the member states, most of the companies are precluded from carrying out business as single entities. This inhibits contributions of the businesses to employment creation. Most of these companies

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Treasury and Risk Management in an International Context Assignment

Treasury and Risk Management in an International Context - Assignment Example Exchange rate system shows the arrangement in which an authority controls value of different currencies in foreign exchange market with respect to other currencies. There are mainly two types of exchange rate systems such as fixed and floating exchange rates. Fixed exchange rate system aims to fix the value of a currency against the value of a stronger currency, a basket of currencies or other measurements like gold. The system is better known as pegged exchange rate because it triggers to stabilize the value of a currency through pegging it with a steadier and internationally recognized currency. Hence, trading opportunities become more stabilized and predictable, especially for economies in which external trade is held responsible for a large chunk of Gross Domestic Product (Ghosh, A, M. G. Wolf and H. C. Wolf, 2002). Though, according to the theory, fixed exchange rate leads to establish greater economic stability and helps the multinational firms to forecast future currency rates so that risks associated with international pricing can be managed by them, in reality, devaluation or revaluation of currencies driven by inflation, interest rate, and other economic variables do not allow currencies to remain fixed forever (Caves, 2007). Hence, the policymakers have adopted a resolution of fixing currency with a portfolio of a number of currencies with different weights such as euro, yen, British pound etc. This type of exchange rate is less susceptible to the economic occurrences of a particular country. For instance, increase in inflation rate will directly impact on a currency pegged with US dollar; however, if the currency is pegged with a basket of currencies, the effect of increasing inflation in the US will be diluted by the presence of other currencies and will have less impact on the pegged currency.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Theory in Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Theory in - Research Paper Example In essence, the development of nursing theory relies on the amount and type of research that has been conducted in this field (Fitzpatrick & Wallace, 2006). In the nursing profession, there are many theories that help explain clinical occurrences, thus, helping nurses during practice. 2. Relationship between Nursing Theory and Research Hall’s theory of core, care, and cure is one of the theories that have contributed greatly towards successful nursing practice (Fitzpatrick & Wallace, 2006). Care is about the pro-active bodily care given to patients, which leads to good patient-nurse relationships. Core, on the other hand, involves the use of communication to get information from the patient about their health status. Finally, Fitzpatrick & Wallace (2006) state that the element of cure involves the administration of medicine and other forms of cure that are necessary for the patient’s wellbeing. In this theory, therefore, nursing is involved with attending to the person, through communication, taking care of the body through hands-on attention, and combating the disease through medical procedures involving drugs and other forms of treatment. ... Nursing theories are useful to practitioners in terms of providing descriptions, explanations, and predictions for clinical events. However, circumstances do not always allow people to exercise all these recommendations, causing diseases and injuries to occur. When this happens, nursing intervention is required to help the patient regain good health. In this theory, the nurse establishes a good relationship with the patient and helps them coordinate their daily activities so as to re-establish proper healthcare. Analyzing the contributions that the two theories make to nursing practice, it is evident that none of theories can provide the basis for research on its own. While Orem teaches about how nurses can facilitate self-care, Hall is more focused on how overall care should be provided by nursing professionals systematically. This goes to show that nursing should be based on a number of theories, in order to come up with comprehensive results. 3. Definition of Terms A case study is a methodological research conducted on particular entities, over a specific amount of time, with the aim of solving a problem and demonstrating a given hypothesis. Ethnography is a type of research conducted in order to investigate how human beings behave in their natural setting. It analyses such aspects as culture, behavior, and norms, which influence human behavior. As a research method, grounded theory deals with a study of how social interactions among people contribute to the formation of meaning to certain aspects of life. This theory aims at analyzing which particular processes within the society affect the majority, and what those processes are. Phenomenology is a study of